Allocate pallets avoiding axle overload
Loading pallets into a truck correctly means placing them in such a way that the axial limits are not exceeded. To load the vehicle in this way, you need to find out some of its parameters and plan ahead for the placement of the cargo in the back.
Maximum load capacity is achieved when axial restrictions after loading are almost reached, but not exceeded.
Below is an example calculated using TruckLoader software to optimize the location of pallets in a semi-trailer truck. At the end of the article is a link to a free online pallet loading service that will help to arrange the maximum number of euro-pallets of equal weight in a trailer without any additional measurements.
Load a maximum number of palletized products and prevent axial overload.
Cargo – pallets – 1000 x 1200 mm, weight – 1200 kg. Loading in 1 layer (optionally restricts stacking pallets on each other), loading preference – start from back and side.
Vehicle – standard Euro truck, carrying capacity – 22t.
Mercedes Actros 1841 with a Fliegl SDS 350 semi-trailer are selected from a database to represent typical Euro truck with a carrying capacity of 22 tons.
The configuration of the axles is presented below, and the permissible axle loads are 10 tons per axle. TruckLoader has a regularly replenished database of vehicles, the user can change all parameters independently, while the load limits are set automatically according to the local laws and regulations.
Dimensions and initial axial loads necessary for accurate calculation
The calculation mode targeting balanced axes can be effectively used for dozens of loads. Loading options with exceeding axial limits are rejected. The estimate does not take more than 30 seconds. The result for the cargo specified above is presented in the figures below.
The option of placing pallets without exceeding axial loads
As a practical restriction, we allow placing no more than 3 single pallets in sequence. According to the axial load schema, there is no excess on any axis. Thus, we have achieved 98% load capacity, i.e. 21.6t of the possible 22t.
Load distribution for the above pallet allocation
Note the general center of gravity indicated on the truck body. Clearly, its displacement by 20 cm (8 inches) in any direction would already lead to axial overload. It’s quite difficult to calculate the precise loading plan manually, so we recommend using a special tool for modelling.
If we had another vehicle at our disposal, for example, a six-axle truck with a load capacity of 24.7 tons, the program would have easily optimized the load for it, placing 2 more pallets inside. The following figure shows the arrangement of pallets with a total weight of 24 tons and axial load distribution.
The optimal arrangement of 20 pallets in a six-axle vehicle
18 pallets with cargo can be loaded into the considered five-axis vehicle, 20 pallets into the six-axis vehicle. Both arrangements comply with axial load limits, not exceeding normative 10 tons per axle. The center of gravity control is essential, thus we recommend using professional software for estimations.